Friday, August 23, 2019
Differences in Afica Apartheid vs Post Apartheid - Essay Example The non Ã¢â¬â black minorities believe that SA is going to turn into Zimbabwe, where foreigners and minorities were exiled and their property confiscated by the government (Bearak). Despite the fact that absolute incomes of the poor have increased, many fear that SA might turn into another Rwanda due to high levels of crime (Bearak). However, the same fears existed during apartheid: Ã¢â¬Å"Not so long ago, people feared that the end of apartheid would set off civil war and a blood bathÃ¢â¬ (Bearak). Inequalities existed then as well: though blacks formed the majority, they owned in 1974 only 13.7% of the total land (UNESCO 36). Non Ã¢â¬â whites were supposed to support expansion of the white power and economic welfare. The former had to be mobile, cheap and thus uneducated, without political rights to complain or try to change the status quo (UNESCO 44). Though apartheid no longer exists in SA, its remnants are felt in the society. The blacks are still poor, and the poor are increasingly violent. In turn, the whites flee the country, fearing for their lives. Segregation has not been eliminated in practice, as inequalities and crime eliminated some progress made by Nelson Mandela and his
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Mom Is Most Influential in My Life Essay People have had someone to influence them in their lifetime at some time or another, but my biggest influence in my life is my mom. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t but admire my momÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and her wisdom. I am a strong believer in the saying Ã¢â¬Å"like father, Ã¢â¬Å"like son goes with both genders, however, I do think that this is more a result of following example rather than a result genetics. It is common knowledge that not everyone is perfect, even heroes, and in realizing this I know. Although I wish to be like my mom in most ways I do not at all. This realization may be one of the most important things I have learned, my mom has taught me to be firm in my decisions in life, not solely on the examples and actions of others but simply on what I gather and learn from the examples and actions of others. In other words, she has taught me not to follow blindly but to make my own decisions based on what I think is important. The things I have learned and continue to learn from my mom are continuous; she has taught me all of the founding principles of my life and for that I am very thankful. Read more:Ã Admiration speech essay My mom has an enormous influence on me because she always encourages me to do my best, taught me to be a survivor and finally mom influences me by is always helping needy. People have had someone to influence them in their lifetime at some time or another, but my biggest influence in my life is my mom. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t but admire my momÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and her wisdom. I am a strong believer in the saying Ã¢â¬Å"like father, Ã¢â¬Å"like son goes with both genders, however, I do think that this is more a result of following example rather than a result genetics. It is common knowledge that not everyone is perfect, even heroes, and in realizing this I know. Although I wish to be like my mom in most ways I do not at all. This realization may be one of the most important things I have learned, my mom has taught me to be firm in my decisions in life, not solely on the examples and actions of others but simply on what I gather and learn from the examples and actions of others. In other words, she has taught me not to follow blindly but to make my own decisions based on what I think is important. The things I have learned and continue to learn from my mom are continuous; she has taught me all of the founding principles of my life and for that I am very thankful.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Knowledge From Western And Chinese Philosophy Perspective Philosophy Essay In this paragraph the authors will discuss different points of views towards the definition of knowledge. In literature we can find differences but also similarities between Western and Chinese philosophy. To work with Knowledge Management Systems it is necessary to understand how to capture, store, share, learn, exploit and explore knowledge. The Western world may already have more experience in this process since knowledge management in China has just recently developed. Ancient philosophers in both worlds already had ideas how to define knowledge and how to transfer it among society and individuals. This paragraph should clarify how those ideas can be made useful for Knowledge Management. 4.2 Knowledge in the Western world First the authors will give a short overview on the Western perspective of knowledge. For this it is necessary to have a look on Western philosophers and their understanding towards knowledge. On some of those philosophers we will be able to reflect their theories on modern Knowledge Management. The goal is to find out how modern Knowledge Management gets involved with some ideas of philosophers or react in an opposite way towards their ideas by not adapting them in Knowledge Management Systems. J. Kaipayil writes in his book The Epistemology of comparative Philosophy (1995, S. 32) about Western philosophy according to the critiques of P.T. Raju. He is an Indian writer on Chinese and Western philosophy. According to Raju, the main subject of Western philosophy is its intellectualism, united with humanism. The cosmological interests of the Ionian philosophers and the humanistic interests of the Sophists are the two starting-points of Western philosophy. These two tendencies met and blended in Aristotle and Plato and for them, humans are rational beings and their essence is reason (the rational soul). The Greeks philosophy established a rational (intellectual) analysis of reality, and in the consequences the Western world became strongly outward-looking. Epistemology, logic and scientific methodology developed. In his Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle presents five virtues of thought that can mapped to levels of knowledge. EpistÃ ©mÃ ©: Factual or scientific knowledge TÃ ©chnÃ ©: Skills-based technical and action-oriented knowledge PhrÃ ³nÃ ©sis: Experiential self-knowledge or practical wisdom based on experience NoÃ »s: Intuition SophÃ a: Theoretical knowledge of universal truths or first principles Butler (2006, pp. 1-9) argues that Aristotles tÃ ©chnÃ © and phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis need to be the core of knowledge management attempts, and while they are not able to be directly applied to IT applications, they must be among the elements upon which knowledge management is based. TÃ ©chnÃ © deals with subjects that vary rather than the constant relationship found in epistÃ ©mÃ ©. The use of tÃ ©chnÃ © is one of the most challenging but at the same time one of the most fertile of knowledge-management pursuits. The dynamic nature of knowledge is reflected in tÃ ©chnÃ ©. Artificial intelligence and decision-support systems seek to automate tÃ ©chnÃ ©. From that point of view, Aristotle has given us a clearly defined and delimited type of knowledge that can be related to information technologies (c.f. D. G. Schwartz, 2005, pp. 1-11). PhrÃ ³nÃ ©sis is practical knowledge dealing with action and handling things to an end. According to Aristotle, phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis is obtained through experiencing the actions being learned and hands-on training. From a learning-through-action point of view the difference between phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis and tÃ ©chnÃ © lies in terms of each type of knowledge can be shared. Aristotle says that tÃ ©chnÃ © can be taught from practitioner to student, phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis on the other hand can only be shared through actual mutual experience. On the perspective of the value of knowledge, Sveibys (1997, pp. 3) focus on the knowledge-action value chain can find significant roots in phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis. In terms of knowledge management, phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis escorts us on the way of simulation, rich media, e-learning, and other types of the experiental presentation of knowledge or captivation on a virtual environment in which the experience rendering phrÃ ³nÃ ©sis can be realized (c.f. D. G. Schwartz, 2005, pp. 1-11). J. Kaipayil (1995, pp. 33) says that the Melesians understood the principles of the universe in terms of something outward no matter how the origin and substance of the world was conceived, be it water, the indefinite, or air. This tendency was continued by the Atomists to find the source of the world in something outward. On the other hand, the Pythagoreans developed the idea that what is given to reason and not to the senses is the truth about the world. The important thing about Pythagoreanism was that it did not regard reason as an abstract concept rather as an existential and ethical entity. Yet, that does not mean that the world-view of Pythagoreanism had a clear idea of inward spirit; the viewpoint was still outward and cosmic. Heraclitus not only mentioned some rational order in nature, he also spoke about the Logos, which is called as the primordial fire and this is responsible for the world order. Still, his interest was in its foundation cosmological and did not perceive t he differences between the inward and the outward, spirit and matter. Von Loh ( 2009, pp. 1-2) writes about Heraclitus who says Everything is in a state of Flux, by reflecting his words on modern knowledge management and on the foundation that the words of Heraclitus are true knowledge organizations systems (KOS) like classification systems, thesauri, nomenclatures are all objects of permanent change and all bibliographical records are in the state of flux as well, which is not widely accepted in information science and practice. In modern technology information can be stored even if it is in a state of flux. According to the problem statement of that paper this proves how important it is to use technology in knowledge management applications. The Sophists shifted the philosophical attention from the cosmos to human and took a new turn in Greek philosophy. The human being was the centre of their philosophy, but Socrates had to fight against subjectivism and skepticism raised by the standpoint of individualism. The criterion of philosophic activity according to Socrates, is objectivity and universality. This not only restored confidence in reason but also clarified the philosophical basis of morality and state. Socrates was insisting on the cultivation of the inner self, he was remarkably rationalistic but also deeply inward-looking. For the stable foundation of morals and politics Plato continued the Socratic search for this subject. Aristotle toned down the inwardness explained by Plato in order to safeguard the reality of outward to introduce the idea of an intelligent first cause (Kaipayil, J., 1995, pp. 34). In his article A Knowledge Management Environment for Research Centers and Universities (2006, p 652 667) Jonice Oliveira writes that for Socrates knowing a subject or concept of consisted of gathering the components of a singular thing, or of a real substance, and joining the similar ones, and separating the unsimilar ones, to form the concept or the definition of the singular thing. In his thinking, in order to join the similar ones it is necessary for somebody to have demonstrations, definitions, axioms and principles for a concept to be proved as true. Which means that the knowledge resulting from scientific activities, is scientific knowledge. Its goal is to demonstrate a solution to a problem by argumentation. Scientific language leads to three main interpretations: knowledge how (know-how), knowledge that (objective knowledge) and knowledge by acquaintance. R. Hagengruber (2008, pp. 6) gives an example on that. Socrates once mentioned that knowledge is not createt because of a concrete situation, in fact the human mind is able to create knowledge in ones own imagination. Literately he claims that You do not need to walk the correct road to Larissa, it is enough if you imagine it in the correct way. To prove his hypothesis Socrates shows how a completely uneducated child can solve a difficult mathematical problem. Even though the child fails at the beginning and gives a wrong answer still due to the way how Socrates asks the child questions and gives him orders, the child is able to get to the answer. So, apparently even on a base of minimum knowledge, through disciplinary processes it is possible to create complex knowledge. This is very useful for information technology which collects and stores data and makes it accessible. Through algorithm this stored data can be merged and can be made useful. This shows how ancient Western philosophers already knew how important it is to get knowledge by experimenting through science. It is necessary to find a logi cal way to solve a problem. This way of capturing knowledge is important to make information technology useful for knowledge management. Later this paper will show how the eastern philosophy thinks about logic and the way/road in itself. In the post-Aristotelian Greek understanding the ethical and political interest was continued, so it lost much of the taste of universality and inwardness and people became isolated from society and moved towards individualism during that time. During the Middle Ages there was a tendency towards the destroying of confidence in human reason and powers through Christianity and mare reason subservient to faith. In fact the medieval philosophy was not able to make much contribution to the growth of Western thought. The following period of the Renaissance gave back the lost confidence in Greek rationalism and humanism. Rene Descartes started to consider the human self to be thought of reason. But he had to face empiricist critique on its mind-body dualism for forgetting the inward in the name of the outward. J. Aarons (2004, pp.6) mentions the method of doubt developed by Rene Descartes. In his Meditations on First Philosophy (1640) he writes that the real challenge lies in skepticism so if there is any sign of doubt about so-called knowledge being true then it cannot be genuine knowledge. But Knowledge Management stays in clear contrast to that, for Knowledge Management there is much more than just personal certainty about the world, it must involve conceptual understanding as well as practical ability. Furthermore justification of knowledge doesnt play the biggest role, it is more concerned with storage, production and processing of knowledge in a group or shared sense. So, here it is to see that the Western philosophy cannot always deliver useful suggestions towards Knowledge Management. In the case of justifying knowledge, it is quite different from its relevant philosophers. Other than Descartes the empiricism laid emphasis on the outward through its doctrine of knowledge as derived exclusively from sense experience. The unfortunate consequence of all these was the unsuccessful attempt to tackle the question of human inwardness as if it was a problem of the outward and the failure to see the mind as the mediating link between inwardness and outwardness. Kant kept a balance between the inward (the transcendental ego) and the outward (the phenomenal world) from the side of human experience. He had to keep God out of theoretical knowledge to keep this balance. Human inwardness was left in the background or sometimes ignored or rejected by the explaining the law of nature in the wake of modern scientific attempts. As a result many thinkers wanted philosophy to follow the methods of science, especially of physics to liberate the outward from the inward. What gave importance to the world was pragmatism, positivism, and analytic philosophy. Here Kaipayil points out, according to Raju, to take its dominant movements and latest accomplishments into consideration, and may say that the general trend of Western philosophy was to liberate the outward from the entanglement of the inward, the subjective, by disregarding or lessening the importance of human inwardness, at least for philosophical reasons. This does not mean that the Western philosophy is exclusively outward-looking and absolutely dissipated in objectivity. The West did realize human inwardness but did not explain it completely and did not give it due importance. The West was more consistently outward-looking in its scientific-objective attitude and it sometimes confused inwardness with faith and preventing inwardness from having its proper role in philosophy. The value what Western philosophers achieved on the other hand lied in its rigorous scientific analysis and conceptual reconstruction of reality. Hence, the West was able to make significant progress in logic and epistemology. This chapter shows that the main influence on Knowledge Management had the ancient philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Socrates. They point out that it is important to see knowledge as a very complex source and needs to be looked at form different views. Aristotle for instance points out that there are different types of knowledge which can be captured, stored and shared in different ways. Socrates came to a similar conclusion by saying that knowledge creation can be achieved in a way of process. Thinking in a logical way was one of the main legacies ancient philosophers gave to the modern world. Knowledge Management learned from philosophers of the renaissance era, such as Rene Descartes that emphasizing on technology development is necessary to integrate effective Knowledge Management in an organization of the modern information era. To manage knowledge in a right way is a very complex and takes a lot effort and concrete analysis. This also proves the hypothesis mentioned at the beginning of this paper. It needs long and intensive approach to manage knowledge. Besides using mind-based managing of knowledge it is also very important to understand the necessity of technology development whci already was mentioned in the problem statement of this paper. After getting an overview of Western philosophy, in the following pages the authors will show how Chinese philosophy had its impact on Knowledge Management. Knowledge in China After we discussed the Western point of view how to define knowledge, now the authors will give the reader and impression of the Chinese philosophy and the understanding of knowledge and how their ideas might be able to reflect on modern Knowledge Management. The goal is to understand what impact Chinese philosophy has on knowledge management systems and how companies are able to deal with it or what they can do in the future. The next pages will show the development of Chinese philosophy. On certain aspects the authors will get deeper in to detail and reflect some ideas on modern Knowledge Management. W. Riegler (2007, p. 219) mentions that the ancient Chinese philosophy is part of a culture which does not know a kind of Genesis. Hence, it is not necessary to ask a cause to understand an effect. In the understanding of Daoism there is an everlasting cycle of recreation by the effect of changing Yin and Yang by the rules of the 5 phases (wood, fire, earth, metal, water). It is kind of strange for those who are not familiar with this kind of thinking. However it is very natural and also pragmatic for those who are. Riegler also asks why this kind of thinking is so important for us longnoses too? Because we are also part of nature and we act by these rules too. Most important, it is a natural way of how our brain works and we can call this thinking too. The essence is that people can synthesize single parts of information to a whole that is bigger than its parts. After this short introduction the authors will now have a closer look on the complex development of Chinese philosophy. J. Kaipayil (1995, p. 28) writes in his book The Epistemology of comparative Philosophy about Chinese philosophy according to the critiques of P.T. Raju. He is and Indian writer on Chinese philosophy. As for Rajus understanding of Chinese philosophy, humanism is its main feature. It is said that the Chinese tradition is to be primarily humanistic, because human nature, both individual and social, was the basic subject of thought in China. The Chinese extolled life and wanted to live it fully. The question of Chinese wisdom was how to be fully human. But this interest in human person and society was characterized, not by a spiritual inwardness as in India or by an intellectual analysis as in the West, but by a pragmatic immediatism. What means that the Chinese humanism was not a metaphysical humanism interested in explication of human nature but a pragmatic humanism that put emphasis on immediate and concrete human relations. The Chinese thinker was concerned with practical affairs of society and life, and, accordingly, that which has immediate application to the benefit of people and society was considered good and true. All theories were meant for immediate application to people and society for their benefit. One could therefore say an immediatistic and humanistic pragmatism characterized the entire Chinese philosophy. Confucius exemplified Chinese philosophys confirmed purpose of explaining the ideal form of society and state. As a social reformer his goal was it to put order and stability into society and state. The foundation of a good society consist in every one following ren (human-heartedness) and discharging the duties of ones state of life and vocation. The ethics in Confucianism were more or less completely devoid of metaphysics. Heaven meant for Confucius a kind of moral order only. Zhu Z. (2004 p. 67 79) says when China realized that their competitors especially from Japan, U.S.A. and Europe all engaged in knowledge management, the Chinese companies were shocked and decided to welcome knowledge management. They created a connection to wuli-shili-renli (WSR) framework, which has its origins in Confucianism. In WSR: Wuli claims the material-technical aspect of managing knowledge. Shili is to facilitate the constructive-cognitive knowing process and Renli denotes in the governing of social-political relations among knowers. The Chinese style is less focusing on debating on the nature of knowledge, nor in expressing well-ordered processual knowledge creation models. For WSR technological and institutional dimensions of knowledge are equally important. Chinese found out how to reflect Confucianism on their organization structure and how to use it to manage knowledge. They realized that it is important to put more effort into technological development. Later in this paper this technological importance will be researched in detail. The Moists (Mohists) also developed a social ethics, but there goal was it more to gain social discipline. To mention Mencius, we find in him a tendency towards human inwardness, as he saw the basis of all morality in human nature (the mind). Nevertheless, his ethical idealism was not metaphysical. Mencius wanted to build a morality on the goodness of human nature. Xunzi on the other hand maintained that human nature is basically evil and it should be controlled by education and state laws so that a good society is made possible. He was the teacher of the Legalists Han Fei Zi and Li Si. The Legalists came to the conclusion to have harder demands for enforcement of laws with rewards and punishments (J. Kaipayil ,1995, p. 29). Deli Yang (2002, p.7) explains that legalism resulted in the consequences of central planning and anti-elitism in China. The ruler (which can be any authority in a hierarchical position) establishes the law without the participation of any individuals. This affected the performances of different governments and resulted in a high level of bureaucracy. These distinctive features we can still find in many modern Chinese companies. Bureaucracy can easily hinder a fluent knowledge transfer across the organization. Not having influence on making laws and rules is a disadvantage for knowledge creation. Another fact would be that the knowledge flow goes only from the top to the bottom, so potential knowledge from the bottom cannot be reached. Further in this paper the authors will explain more about knowledge sharing and the knowledge flow. The Logicians also were not uninterested in society and state. They emphasized the absoluteness and predominance of the universals over the particulars and thereby demonstrated the harmony of things and the need for universal love. The Daoists advocated individual happiness by a life of purity, simplicity, and spontaneous union with nature. They also were interested more in human things than in material things. The Dao is not any material principle external to human being but the principle internal to humans and inherent in nature (J. Kaipayil ,1995, p. 30). Ai Yu (2008, p.4) argues that many people believe that Laozis philosophy is primarily based on Wu Wei, which is a central thought of his Daodejing and means non-action or not-acting. But Wu Wei is actually more complex and also focuses on wholeness and partiality. Laozi explains the Way (Dao) is wholeness and infinity, while everything else is partiality and finitude. Based on Daodejing as the ideal of all existence the Way is unseen, not transcendent, powerful and also humble which means it is the root of all things. In fact humans should live their life in harmony with the Way for being as true and pure as an infant. Laozis concepts considers to emotions, knowledge, rationalities and sensations and not directing ambiguity, chaos and oppressions to the outside world. People should look into their minds and should try to find explanations. Ai Yu (2008, p.5) also says that today the field of knowledge management has been changed as a model of value creation to a great deal due to the shift of demanded resources. Edvinsson (2002, p.47) argues that value is usually more than just money, knowledge management should give value a second thought because it is a cross-disciplinary area. The modern Chinese business world is changing and in 2005 Hu Jintao came up with his policy of building a harmonious society. China Mobile and domestic Chinese insurance companies had to face extra-economic challenges like income inequality, environmental degradation, rural poverty etc. and for that the Chinese companies reacted with providing support for less-privileged citizens. According to Laozi this means paying more attention to the altered value preference and therefore discovering a new way of doing business. An alternative to both Confucianism and Daoism would be Buddhism but itself was transformed under their influence none the less. Buddhism is a philosophy based on human nature alone, and therefore it was easily assimilated by the Chinese mind with its characteristics pragmatic humanism and immediatism. Cheng-Fong Wu (1989, p. 90) already said that in Buddhism giving Dharma means to deliver wisdom to living beings without pay, wisdom is designed to mentally benefit others. Which means using knowledge to inspire the poor and teaching them the knowledge of a skill can make them stand on their feet by acquiring jobs. Those thoughts of Buddhism are possible reasons that the Chinese way of thinking about intellectual property rights is far different from the Western world. They might see China as the poorer country and count on the richer countries to share their knowledge with them without getting paid in return. Further in this paper the authors will get back to the topic of intellectual property rights in China. Another philosophy called Neoconfucianism also marked a very important development in the history of Chinese thought. With its rich metaphysics Buddhism stimulated the Chinese mind to an intense interest in metaphysical problems about nature and life. Together with the revival of the Daoists way of thinking, demanded on the part of Confucian scholars to provide a more systematic cosmology that would serve as the metaphysical foundation for Confucian ethics and political thought. In Zhou Dunyi the Daoist and the Yin-Yang conceptions combined with Confucianism to make a cosmology to defend Confucian ethics. Everything is created by the Dao, called this time the Great Ultimate (Taiji), from beginning to end of yin and yang forces; and human beings are the highest creation which continues this creative process by spiritual cultivation leading to wisdom. Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi were the brothers who developed the concept of li (principle), which became a major theme in Neoconfucianism. As the source of all the laws of nature and the principle of all diversified things, li is the same as the Dao. The rationalist wing of Neoconfucianism was developed by Zhu Xing who was following Cheng Yi. Lu Xiangshan who was following Mencius and Cheng Hao was founder of the idealist wing. According to Zhu Xi the Great Umtimate, which is the highest li , is found in each individual. This is the all-inclusive and wholly good Dao. Each particular thing is a combination of qi and li, and in humans this li is ren, and this is called spiritual cultivation if followed this inner nature. Lu Xiangshan and Hao on the other hand rejected the very idea of qi and focused that everything is composed to li and li is essentially the mind. Wang Yangming goes further with this idealist doctrine and says that the substance of mind is nature of things and this is li. Li is to understand by looking within, since all things, heaven, earth and humans are one. To exercise this unity is to love people (J. Kaipayil ,1995, p.32). J. Kaipayil writes on the prospect of philosophy in the post-Qing communist China, that Raju commended that the Marxian ideology with its activism and pragmatism agreed well with the naturalistic, humanistic, and pragmatic tendencies of the general Chinese tradition and it would be no wonder if a Confucian variety of communist philosophy should emerge at some future time that will meet the philosophical needs of the Chinese people perhaps more adequately than the communism of Marx, Lenin, and Stalin in its western robes. Raju supposed that the history of Chinese philosophy shows that the Chinese mind on the whole avoided the extremes of inwardness and outwardness. It is neither wholly inward-looking nor wholly outward-looking. It tries to get a balance between the inward and outward characteristics of human existence, and this attidue is best illustrated by the Daoist ideal of sageliness within and kinglingness without. The whole of human life was made the topic of philosophical investigation. The cultivation of inner human nature was insisted upon and not only for its own sake however for the creation and sustainment of a good society. All philosophical questions were used to find answers in a practical life and so China could create some of the best ideas of social and political thoughts and ethics. According to J. Kaipayil the previous words showed the positive side of Chinese philosophy but there also is another side of this philosophy. Kaipayil says that Chinese philosophy fails when ultimate qu estions are brought up. It accepted man and their life as basic facts for philosophy, not because it came to this sort of conclusion in the light of answers to ultimate questions, but because it did not come up with them and avoided these questions when raised, so that the life of human beings does not discover any foundation for its significance. Raju believed that Chinese philosophy lacked a metaphysical foundation and Chinese social thought a certain philosophical depth. The Chinese philosophy, compared to the Western philosophy, lacks logical rigour and is less epistemological and metaphysical. For the cause of not coming up with ultimate questions about human inwardness and outwardness, it is hard to find great systems of metaphysics and epistemology in China as in the West. It does not say that China lacked completely in logic, epistemology, and metaphysics. China had thoughts about that but they were explained only to that extent that was hardly enough to understand some prac tical human affairs, the hard facts of state and society. There were no serious efforts made to unknot the philosophical foundations of human existence. After getting an insight in Chinese philosophy, the authors will now highlight the more import philosophies. Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism and Legalism are mentioned as high influential thinking schools. People learned from their philosophies what is useful or less useful to integrate Knowledge Management in an organization. One result in Confucianism suggests to realize the importance of technology which is also mentioned in the problem statement of this paper. Legalism can be a problem for Knowledge Management because it hinders knowledge flow and knowledge transfer. This is a very common problem in China, because society and organizations are often use legalism as their foundation. If Chinese companies want to achieve success by introducing Knowledge Management Systems into their organization it is necessary not to use Legalism as a companys philosophy. Buddhism also shows how Chinese express their feeling towards intellectual property and how Western companies might find some re asons for being afraid of the loss of their technology knowledge. Further research in this field would be highly recommended. On the other hand this paper shows that Daoism not necessarily means do nothing , it also animates to seek for the creation of value, which some Chinese organizations already adopted. To give a short conclusion about Western and Chinese philosophy, then next chapter will show how to compare those two different cultures and find out that they are not so different in some aspects. Comparison of Western and Chinese Philosophy The comparison of those two philosophies should show how Knowledge Management can react on the influence of philosophy on two different cultures. In modern Knowledge Management both cultures lies their focus on the development of technology to capture, store and share knowledge. The Western philosophy already realized the importance of logic and scientific approach while on the other hand the Chinese philosophy mainly concentrated on inner values which should be good for society. The West has a character of individualism while the East is trying to create a harmonies society by less focusing on individualism. Here Legalism can be seen as one of the biggest problems which results in not using all advantages of Knowledge Management. The problem that Chinese companies are focusing on technology has not necessarily to be seen as a problem. But leaving personal interaction behind can be seen as a major problem. The goal of Knowledge Management in China is to form transparent organizations to create knowledge and to share knowledge among their employees. As the hypothesis says it is important to take intensive care of Knowledge Management and this also cannot be realized in a short term period. Especially in China with their long history of philosophy and its great impact on their society it takes much longer to integrate Knowledge Management Systems in a company than it would take in Western company. Tacit and Explicit Knowledge After the discussion of certain perspectives on knowledge in Western philosophy and Chinese philosophy and their influence on Knowledge management, the authors will now explain the two important aspects of tacit and explicit knowledge. It is necessary to focus on the characteristics of tacit knowledge, since this is more difficult to access. During this work the reader should understand how important it is to get access to tacit knowledge and how to make it useful in a cross-cultural business environment. Faxiang Chen (2006, p.2) says that the term of knowledge refers two different forms: tacit and explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be documented, transmitted, codified, stored, shared and learned indirectly. Tacit knowledge on the other hand originates from personal accumulated experience and learning and can be shared in direct ways vi
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Caring for Child and Family with terminal Illness The aim of this assignment is to critically explore the concept of paediatric palliative care and the relevance of a childrens hospice in Ireland. A critical analysis of literature surrounding this topic will be undertaken in order to gain an in-depth understanding. Key elements relating to paediatric palliative care will be highlighted. Finally, the author will conclude on appropriateness of a hospice for sick children. An initial need for palliative care for children was acknowledged in the 1980s; having identified the need for this service, a nun opened and successfully ran a hospice for sick children (Rowse 2008). Interestingly, thirty years on, there is much debate surrounding the advantages and disadvantages of a national childrens hospice in Ireland. However, contrary to beliefs and the success of many hospices, it is recognised by the Department of Health and Children (DOHC) (2001); Rowse (2008); Watson et al (2009); Bishop et al (2008); that children with a life-limiting illness are best cared for at home. In addition, Watson et al (2009) outlined that when the premature death of a child was evident, the option of home, hospice or hospital as a place of death was presented to a child and their family, the majority of children and their families chose home. Caring for a child with a life-limiting illness can be a stressful and exhausting experience; it can put enormous pressures on the family unit (Wolff 2008). From personal experience, a familys dynamics can be seen to change over a period of time when a child is born or diagnosed with a life-limiting illness. Individual family members appear to take up a specific role when faced with a diagnosis of a life-limiting illness. A life limited-illness can be viewed as a condition that has no cure at present and will inevitably lead to the premature death a child (International Childrens Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) 2008; DOHC 2005). However, in many cases of paediatric palliative care it is very difficult to place a time frame on the length of the illness and its trajectory. Watson et al (2009) illustrated that these factors depend greatly on the individual childs diagnosis and the rarity of the illnesses being experienced. The DOHC (2010) identified conditions and diseases that children most commonly suffer with and divided them into 4 individual groups according to their types. However, experience and further reading has demonstrate that, in reality these illnesses dont always stand alone and can be combined with another illness or condition; as a result they may not always fit into a specific group type. Therefore, needs change and vary depending on the individual. While et al (1996) identified that an alarming 60% of children suffering with a life-limiting illness were dying from non cancer related conditions. It would appear difficult to clearly ascertain how long individual paediatric palliative care provisions would needed for, as many of the paediatric cases are unique in there diagnoses and have vast amounts of unknown variables. Similarly, these problems can be mirrored within the adult population of individuals with an intellectual disability, many individuals within this group are living with complex mental/physical illnesses throughout their lives, a further diagnosis of a life-limiting illness and its illness trajectory is surrounded by even more uncertainty (Gary and Stein 2008). Unfortunately, individuals with an intellectual disability are viewed as being one of the most disadvantage groups in society (Ryan McQuillan 2005). It would appear that a comparison could be drawn to a childs position regarding their needs, Watson et al (2009) highlighted that when a child is at an advanced stage within the illness trajectory many problems can occur, however, children unlike adults tend to live many years longer; many parents find this extremely difficult. From the authors experience many individuals with a primary diagnosis of severe intellectual disabilities and a life-limiting illness, appear to live longe r than that envisaged by the doctor. Although it has been acknowledged by the DOHC (2005), that within the trajectory of a child illness, children can cross over in their requirements for care needs throughout their illness due to the individuality of cases. The same has not been recognised within individuals with an intellectual disability. It can be argued that there are similarities between the philosophies of adult and paediatric palliative care. Gaining recognition of these differences has proven difficult to achieve (Richie 2008). In addition to this, Malcom et al (2008) acknowledged that children and adult palliative care principles were comparable, although, the uniqueness and specialist field of paediatric palliative care continues to emerge on its merits. McCulloch et al (2008) identified that paediatric palliative care principles are largely based on adaptation of the adult principles. However, Watson et al (2009) recognised some variations of these were developmental factors, approaches to consultation, physiology/pharmacokinetics, family structure and function, school and finally illness trajectory. Unfortunately, Dangel (2002) acknowledged that in the past some groups of children within Europe, where paediatric palliative care was not recognised or offered as part of multidisciplinary team involvement, a pr edisposing factor for the more recent tapered number of children receiving the provisions and benefits of a palliative care input. Furthermore, The European Association of Palliative Care (2009) advocated that a child should not be compared to that of a small adult, it was reiterated that their individual needs differed to that of an adult, although adult palliative care knowledge and experience can be a valuable and enriched source of expertise. The World Health Organisation (WHO) (2002a) illustrated that adult palliative care aims to improve quality of life for patients and their families with problems associated with life-threatening illness, this can be achieved through the prevention, relief, early identification, holistic assessment and treatment of pain, encompassing all factors associated with physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs. Moreover, the paediatric definition applied by the WHO (1998a) bears a very close resemblance to that of the adult definition, however, central to the paediatric definition is active total care of the childs body, mind and spirit, giving support to the family from the start of diagnose and will continue regardless of whether or not a child receives treatment directed at the disease, this should be a broad multidisciplinary approach availing of community resources provided tertiary care including that of the home. Furthermore, a Report of the National Advisory Committee on Palliative Ca re (2001) stated that, if a child requires a palliative care service due to their life-limiting illness, their individual needs must be addresses and differ from that of adults. As a direct result of the recommendations published within this report, the DOHC (2005) devised a document on the assessment needs of a child needing palliative care. Murphy (2009) cited by Hawley (2010) outlined that the collaboration and interagency workings of professionals and families is key to unlocking the puzzle and viewing the holistic needs of a child and family. Interestingly, Hawley (2010); Gary and Stein (2008); McKechnie (2006) reported that as professionals we only see the needs of individuals based on the experiences and components that our own disciplines allow us to see. The needs of a child are identified by the DoHC (2010), where they foresee the future provision of paediatric palliative care in Ireland. Within this insight there is much change and some encouraging prospects for the field of paediatric palliative care. The main areas within both medical and nursing care that are being addressed are specialist paediatric positions, education and training, co-operation and collaboration between paediatric and palliative care services (DOHC 2005). Furthermore, in light of the primary care strategy DOHC (2001) the focus of health c are is being developed within the community setting, lead by General Practitioners, Public Health Nurses (PHNs) and other members of the multidisciplinary team. The question on many people minds is, is there adequate funding, recourses and trained staff in place to deal with the number of complex palliative care cases? It would appear that the Department of Health and Children and the Irish Hospice Foundation have worked collaboratively in response to the needs of those within the community and paediatric palliative care, concurring with recent advances in publication of paediatric palliative care. However, it would appear that the greatest financial input has come from the voluntary sector. The Irish Hospice Foundation (2010) has vowed to provide somewhere in the region of Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬2.25 million over the next three to five years to fund the cost of providing eight outreach nurses with specific training to work and care for children with life-limiting illnesses. Furthermore, the Jack and Jill Foundation a registered charity, also provide Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬3m annually to families whose children suffer with a form of brain damage, providing them with financial and emotion support in their homes. Hynson et al (2003) identified that as home care is central to paediatric palliative care it would appea r the most appropriate place to begin supporting in the task of improving the quality of life, reducing fears and allowing families to continue with as much normality as possible within their lives. However, in the case where home care is not appropriate or possible due to the complexity of illnesses, lack of trained nurses or that of geographical problems, a hospice may be more appropriate from that of an acute hospital setting. It was been well documented that children with a life-limiting illness and their families needing palliative care support, require a holistic approach to their individual case (Wolfe et al 2000). This can be an extremely challenging experience for the health care professional. To provide adequate care it is important to assess the needs of health care professional as well as the service users needs. Papafadatou (1997) identified that as health care professionals deal with a death of a child, they too can become disheartened by their failed attempts to save a childs life, this can happen on different three levels, firstly, the feeling of not being able to save the childs life, secondly, as a practitioner they could not protect the child from harm and thirdly the feeling of betrayal to the parents who trusted them with their child. The importance of supervision is reiterated by Butterworth and Faugier (1992), where it allows professionals to care for their emotional, social, physical a nd physiological needs. It would appear easier to be achieved within a hospice due to the central locality of staff. Having identified concerns related to paediatric palliative care, is it not more commendable to have a paediatric hospice that encompasses all needs supported by highly skilled staff, adapted and equipment within this specific area of medicine. An advantage of a hospice could be that of continuity of care and expertise management of rare and complex conditions. However, a disadvantage could be taking a child out of its familiar environment, causing fear and anxiety. The DOHC (2005) illustrate that only in exceptional and rare circumstances is taking a child out of its home is in the best interest of the child and their family. It only seems natural that grief associated with life-limiting illnesses will have long lasting effects on a childs siblings and a family as a unit. Wells (2001) outlined that coping with the death of a sibling was an impossible task; a surviving childs self esteem was directly related to the length and trajectory of the illness experience. Many problems can oc cur and personality changes in a surviving child can be seen following the death of a child with a life-limiting illness. However, Groot et al (2005) outlined, that these problems were less apparent when a child was cared for throughout the illness within the home environment. Again, this leads one to believe that the most appropriate place for a child to be cared for is that of the home with extensive provision of palliative care in place. However, Stelle et al (2008) identified little is known about a childs or families rational for attending a hospice. Benini et al (2008) outlines that in the Veneto region of Italy there is a paediatric palliative care network team supported by a regional paediatric hospice, there is a multi-disciplinary team approach with specialist supervision, training and care integrated within acute hospital services. It would appear that when a child is diagnosed with a life-limiting illness, there is a cascade of expert professionals contacted from the hospice, the child and their family then meet with the skilled professionals affiliated to the case to discuss options and resources available to them; as a result they coordinate care accordingly. The ultimate aim is to try getting the child home, pending influencing factors such as locality, staffing and cost, once a home a continuous reassessment of needs is carried out by the family paediatrician who coordinates care and liaises closely with the members of the multi disciplinary team involved. From this model it would appear that the hospice has multi functions. It appears to provide professional expertise, training, skills, knowledge and is a base for experts within the profession. The above concerns are similar to that within Ireland; the optimum locality for a hospice that is accessible to all within Ireland is of great concern. Furthermore, the American Academy of Paediatricians (AAP) (2000) cited by Jennings (2005) illustrated that hospice care is different to that of palliative care, as hospice care offers a package of care incorporating multi-disciplinary team workings. However, within the DOHC (2010) it is envisaged that there will be integration and co-ordination of services in a bid to provide an effective and efficient seamless palliative care service for children with life-limiting illnesses and their families within the home. In order for this to be implemented and carried out there will be an amalgamation of services from all organisations within the healthcare system. The DOHC (2005) reiterates the importance of a key worker to act as a link connecting services. The implementation of a childrens outreach nurse will undertake this role in an attempt to co-ordinate services and facilitate the needs of health and social care professionals, (Department of Health and Children 2010). From the literature, it would appear that nurses have a greater knowledge and experience in dealing with adult palliative care cases (While et al 1996). This is primary due to the limited number of paediatric palliative care cases in Ireland. In 2002 it was believed that there was a population of 1,013,301 children in Ireland (The Government of Ireland 2007). Moreover, the Irish Hospice Foundation (2008) estimated that there are 1,369 children living in Ireland with a life-limiting illness. As there are limited cases of paediatric life-limiting illnesses many cases appeared to be spread over a wide geographical area and this is bound to pose problems for organisations, influencing the levels of available expertise, training and costs European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) Taskforce (2007). However, under the directions of the DOHC (2010) policy it has recognised that if effective palliative care is required, it can be successfully delivered even if resources are limited. Bear ing this is mind, the DOHC (2001), illustrated that there were three levels of palliative care, a minimum of level 1 should be practiced by all staff indifferent of their area of expertise. The role of outreach nurses incorporates the training needs of staff at a local level (DoHC 2010). Furthermore, within the DoHC (2010) document it states there is a requirement for a consultant paediatrician with an interest in palliative care. However, some criticism with lack of limited research within this field and the majority of guidelines are based on opinions and a need for evidence based medicine Straatman et al (2008). The All Ireland Institute for Hospices and Palliative care (2007) identified that educational programmes were being made available for staff caring for children with a life-limiting illness. This was done in order to raise standards and provide up-to-date evidenced based care for children with a life-limiting illness. However, these programmes are located in Northern Ireland; recent economic difficulties do not promote attendance of staff to courses due to the financial burden and reduced staffing levels within organisations. However, within the current policy the DOHC (2010) have acknowledged that staff should ideally have knowledge, skills and confidence in both childrens and palliative care practices when providing paediatric palliative care. Many of the nurses who are experience within this field appear to work within the acute setting. While et al (1996) identifies that families have expressed a wish that when the time comes their child could die at home, however, there was some unease that without adequate nursing support this would not be possible. The Health Service Executive plan to implement a hospice home care programme, combined with a group of skilled and knowledgeable nurses providing advice and support to parents and other professionals alike who are caring for children at home (DoHC 2010). Benini et al (2008) advocates that a paediatric hospice is an important link within the paediatric palliative care chain, it can aid the transition from hospital to home, with the aim to achieve some normalisation within the childs life and prepare them for the home environment. The Cancer Strategy (2007) sets out principles outlining the ways in which palliative care service for the adult population should be developed and met. This is reiterated globally within the World Health Organisation (2007) document. Moreover, The Department of Aging and Disability Home Care (2004) produced a report more specific to the needs of an individual with intellectual disabilities identifying how policies and procedures can be implemented to achieve standardised practice. On a paediatric level, the publication of a national policy is a starting point for things to come. The DoHC (2010) aims to provide training in paediatric palliative care, thus improving standards for those afflict with a life limi ting illness. Literature informs the author that both the hospice and the home have equal credibility when implementing palliative care principles. However, firsthand experience speaks for itself, Time is precious and whatever time a child has left should be used to ensure they are as happy as possible in a home environment ODwyer-Quinn (2010), this is a profound and very heartfelt message sent out by a mother who suffered the loss of her little girl, 5 years later, she remains heavily involved and at the forefront of paediatric palliative care, contributing and present at the unveiling of the national policy on paediatric palliative care in March this year.
Monday, August 19, 2019
In the year of 1095, Pope Urban II started what we know as the Holy Wars or the Crusades. Over the period from 1095-1464, a series of military expeditions were fought to take back the Holy Land, Jerusalem, from the Seljuk Turks. There were eight crusades, which were spurred for many different reasons by many different people that left a lasting effect to the world. These years of bloodshed were led by men of power to gain control over the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Jerusalem was extremely important to the Muslims and Christians at this time. Many religious events had happened there, and many of the landmarks of both religions were located in Jerusalem. The Crusaders failed to regain the Holy Land, but the Eastern connections opened Europe to a brighter understanding of optimistic ways of living and thinking. There have been many arguments as to what fuelled the Crusades, and religious fanaticism is one of them. Jerusalem is a holy city to both the Muslims and the Christians because many historic religious events have taken place there. In Jerusalem there is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which stands of the hill where Christ was believed to have been crucified, died, buried, and where he rose again. Now if Jerusalem was so important to both the Muslims and Christians of course they would fight to keep it or gain control of it. Pope Urban II called for the first crusade to free the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks that took over in 1070. In his speech he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Seize the land ...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
People change through every generation. But the bidding force through all the generations has been literature. There are four essential classifications for literature, romanticism, realism, naturalism, and existentialism. Romanticism centers Ã¢â¬Å"around art as inspiration, the spiritual and aesthetic dimension of nature, and metaphors of organic growthÃ¢â¬ (VanSpanckeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayist and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). VanSpanckeren says that in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"The PoetÃ¢â¬ , Ralph Waldo Emerson, one of the most influential writer of the Romantic era, asserts: For all men live by truth, and stand in need in expression. In love, in art, in avarice, in politics, in labor, in games, we study to utter our painful secret. The man is only half himself, the other half is expression (qtd. in Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayist and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). Romantic literature came from a reaction to the neoclassicism and formal orthodoxy of the preceding period (Holman and Harmon). Ã¢â¬Å"Romanticism arose so gradually and exhibited so many phases that a satisfactory definition is not possibleÃ¢â¬ (Holman and Harmon). According to VanSpanckeren, the development of the self became a major theme in romanticism; self- awareness was a primary method. According to the Romantic theory, self and nature are the same, and self- awareness is not a selfish dead end but a mode of knowledge opening up the universe (VanSpankeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayists and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). With this new found idea of self, new compound words with positive meanings emerged: self- realization, self- expression, and self- reliance (VanSpankeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayist and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). Romanticism stresses individualism, affirmed the value of the common person, and looked to the inspired imagination for its aesthetic and ethical values (VanSpankeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayists and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). In New England, Romanticism prospered, the New England transcendentalists, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and their associates, were inspired to a new optimistic affirmation by the romanticism ideas (VanSpanckeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayists and Poe tsÃ¢â¬ ). The transcendentalists believed that the soul of each individual was thought to be identical with the world (VanSpanckeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayist and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). Some examples of romantic writers are the New England transcendentalists (Emerson, Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, Bronson Alcott, and William Ellery Channing), Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Edgar Allen Poe (VanSpanckeren, Ã¢â¬Å"The Romantic Period: Essayists and PoetsÃ¢â¬ ). The New England transcendentalist carried the expression of philosophical and religious ideas to a high level through essays and lectures (Holman and Harmon). Ralph Waldo EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s first publication, Nature,
Saturday, August 17, 2019
I do agree the idea that the most joyful time for every person without any doubt would be their childhood. Since people are different in many areas, they may have different opinions about the reasons; however, I believe that childhood is the happiest time because first children at that age do not have any special responsibility, and second they are children and their mind and the way they think completely different from teenagers and adults. In other words, their minds are free. First, as a child you do not have to take any noticeable responsibility. You just play and enjoy your daily life. A child does not get into the troubles of for example studying, going to work or even having family duties like a father or mother. In case of everyday life, matures are dealing with a lot of chores and duties. Take the case of a mother for instance, she should have to take care of the house, do the daily chores such as cooking, ironing, cleaning and boring duties like that. Moreover, she has to look after of her child or children too. Considering that she does not have to work like her spouse outside the house. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s most important concern would be the size of their bicycle or the number of their toys they possess. Second, as a child your mind is largely free from many things which may cause challenge such as political or financial issues. Furthermore, in that period they tend to make friends much easier unlike teenagers. The things they are looking in a friendship are not materialistic. The purpose of make a link with their peers would not be for using them in further critical situations. They simply make friends to play with each other or to share their toys. Beside mentioned points, their needs are not much complicated. They would become easily happy by giving them a notebook and bunch of color pencils as if they are given a luxury car or a high-ranked position in a company. In conclusion, I consider the childhood time as the most memorable and happiest for everyone mostly because at that age, our expectations from life and other people around us are very simple and would not cause anyone trouble.